Glossaire de A à Z
All the sectors of the catchment area most vulnerable to diffuse pollution. It corresponds to a realistic intervention scale to improve the quality of water at the catchment. Depending on the type of catchment and its environment, there may be one or more distinct zones.
Area identified by the intersection of the cartographic zoning of intrinsic vulnerability and the zoning of agricultural pressures developed following technical-economic studies focused on risk assessment. The catchment area protection area is identified as part of the definition of action programs on catchment areas. This is an optional process leading to the identification of an area subject to environmental constraints (ZSCE), the protection area of the catchment area. The founding regulatory text of the catchment area protection zone is the departmental decree delimiting this same zone.
Area on which the water that soaks into the ground supplies the abstraction for drinking water.
A substance that dissociates more or less completely in aqueous solution to produce hydrogen ions H+. An acid is stronger the more it gives off H+ ions in water. Some acids: sulphuric acid (H2SO4), hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3)...
Biomass of microorganisms used for treating wastewater from their pollutants (mainly organic matter). Microorganisms are free, suspended in the wastewater, kept inside an aeration tank, and feed on the pollutants. Then, the separation of activated sludge and water occurs in a clarifier: a part of the sludge is put back into the aeration tanks, while the other part (corresponding to the increase of stock) is discharged.
Substance ou microorganisme qui exerce une action sur ou contre les organismes nuisibles (autrement que par une action physique ou mécanique). On en trouve dans les produits biocides (PB) comme par exemple dans les anti-moustiques ou les gels hydroalcooliques. Afin de limiter les risques pour la santé humaine et l’environnement, les SA doivent être approuvées au préalable pour pouvoir placer un PB sur le marché
Control of surface waters, as part of the water status monitoring programme, listed in the Register of protected areas : intakes of drinking water intended for human consumption (more than 100 m3/day on the average), water bodies of species habitat and protection areas (which are included in the operational monitoring programme when they may not meet their environmental goals).
Commission established in each basin or group of basins, chaired by the basin coordinator prefect and composed of prefects of regions, prefects of departments (administrative divisions), heads of regional State centres in charge of environmental issues, the regional director for the environment who acts as basin delegatee and paymaster of the area where the basin committee has its home office, as well…
Relative significance of the cost of public water supply and sanitation services (production, conveyance and distribution of drinking water; collection, conveyance and treatment of wastewater) in the available income of consumers. This criterion is to be taken into account, e.g. when defining an overall price policy for public water supply and sanitation services.
In the technical sense, an urbanized area equipped with a community sanitation system consisting of one or several wastewater collecting systems (sewers) and one or more wastewater treatment plants, forming a coherent sewerage system. Under the meaning of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive, an area where the
Dispositif qui permet aux agriculteurs de bénéficier d'une aide financière dans le cadre d'un contrat d'une durée de un à cinq ans. Calculée selon le nombre d’hectares (entre 50 et 900 euros à l'hectare), cette indemnisation doit compenser les coûts supplémentaires et manques à gagner de leur transition écologique. Ce dispositif est financé par l'État, les collectivités territoriales, l'Europe et les Agences de l'eau.
Démarche scientifique attentive aux phénomènes biologiques qui combine développement agricole et protection/régénération de l’environnement naturel. Elle est à la base d’un système global de gestion d’une agriculture multifonctionnelle et durable, qui valorise les agro-écosystèmes, optimise la production et minimise les intrants.
Des systèmes de production agricole valorisant la diversité biologique et les processus naturels (cycles de l’azote, du carbone, de l’eau, équilibres biologiques entre organismes ravageurs et auxiliaires des cultures…). L’agroécologie se développe dans le champ scientifique comme une approche intégrant les concepts et méthodes d’une diversité de disciplines dont l’agronomie, l’écologie, l’économie, la sociologie.
Sciences and techniques that aim at understanding the relationships between crops, environments and agricultural techniques, and at improving agriculture.
Young fish living on its yolk reserves or having not yet acquired its adult form.
Phenomenon of exceptional proliferation of algae.
Any live specimen of a species, subspecies or lower taxon of animals, plants, fungi or micro- organisms introduced outside its natural range; it includes any part, gametes, seeds, eggs or propagules of such species, as well as any hybrids, varieties or breeds that might survive and subsequently reproduce.
Fish species belonging to the Clupeidae family (such as sardine and herring). The allis shad are among the anadromous species (i.e. which swim up rivers to spawn in the middle part of the rivers). As such, their populations have paid a heavy price to river development (dams without fish pass facilities, extraction of gravel changing the spawning, etc). Their presence is therefore a good indicator of the status of a river development. Two species of allis shad are present (and exploited) in French waters: the allis shad (Alosa Alosa) and twaite shad (Alosa fallax).
Vertebrate animal that has the characteristic of starting its life in the water. At birth, an amphibian breathes through its gills, like a fish. As an adult he now has lungs through which he can breathe freely, but he continues to absorb most of the oxygen he needs through the skin.
Refers to fish that migrate from river waters to the sea or vice versa, once or several times during their lifetime. We can distinguish anadromous species that migrate up rivers to reproduce and catadromous species that most often live in fresh water and will reproduce at sea.
A migratory species that migrates from the sea to rivers to reproduce. One example is salmon.
Methodical review allowing both to identify and quantify the different components of water, but also to evaluate its characteristics and state, according to specific criteria. This review is based on the following of specific protocols adapted to the various controlled parameters.
Organization in charge of carrying out analyses or coordinating analyses made by subcontractors. The laboratories are stakeholders which generally act as providers under contracts (procurement). They produce data according to the specifications attached to the order.
Component of the substrate/medium to be analyzed. Three broad categories of analyzed fractions were defined by the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre): (i) rough or full substrate (e.g. the "untreated water" fraction analyzed from the "water" substrate); (ii) partial fractions (as classified by part of the same medium, e.g. for sediments: particles
Specific ecosystem of aquatic environments generally described by the living beings that are part of it, the nature of the bed and river banks, the characteristics of the catchment area, the hydraulic regime, and the physical-chemical characteristics of water.
Articulated invertebrate animal which have the characteristic of breathing through trachea. Some insects have become aquatic (representing 3% of insects) but have retained this aerial breathing.
Set of aquatic vertebrate animals which have the characteristic of being viviparous: the female lets the young grow in its belly, from which they get out alive. Marine mammals living in the oceans (cetaceans), as well as various freshwater species, such as the European otter, are aquatic mammals. Their mode of operation depends on the aquatic ecosystem where they live.
Continuous or discontinuous geological formation, containing temporary or permanent water that can be mobilized. It consists of permeable rock (porous or fractured formation) able to provide water naturally or though exploitation (drainage, pumping).
Set of aquifers constituting a hydrogeological unit. Its hydrodynamic characteristics give it a quasi-hydraulic independence (non-propagation of effects outside its limits). As such, it is an entity for the management of the underground water it contains.
Natural or agricultural floodplain (not currently urbanized), that can be extended to floods whose occurrence is higher than the hundred-year flood, as part of a hydrogeomorphical approach. When local stakes require it (level of hazards, areas considered important, etc), floodplains, which, at the date of approval of the river basin management plan (SDAGE), are classified "to be urbanized" but are not yet highly urbanized, may be considered, for their part not yet urbanized, as areas for flood storage purpose.
According to the Water Framework Directive (WFD), it means analyzing the whole basin or group of basins, focusing on three aspects: characteristics of the basin or group of basins, impacts of human activities on water status and economic analysis of water use. The assessment especially aims to prepare later the master plan for water development and management * (SDAGE) and the programme of measures by assessing the risk of not achieving the environmental objectives for water bodies. The first assessments were adopted by the basin committees and approved by the basin coordinator prefects in…
Transformation d'un sol à caractère naturel ou agricole par des actions d’aménagement, pouvant entraîner son imperméabilisation totale ou partielle.
Phénomène qui consiste à transformer un sol naturel, agricole ou forestier, par des opérations d’aménagement pouvant entraîner une imperméabilisation partielle ou totale, afin de les affecter notamment à des fonctions urbaines ou de transport (habitat, activités, commerces, infrastructures, équipements publics…). En France comme dans d’autres pays, du fait de l'étalement de notre urbanisation et de nos infrastructures, l'artificialisation des sols augmente.
Cette réduction est préjudiciable à la biodiversité, au climat et à la vie terrestre en général : Accélération de la perte de biodiversité ; Réchauffement climatique ; Amplification des risques d'inondations ; perte de productivité agricole ; Accroissement des dépenses liées aux réseaux (routes, électricité, assainissement) ; Ajout d’autre nuisance à la biodiversité (nuisance…
According to the Water Act of 1992, "when hydraulic development works, other than those conceded or authorized and intended or resulting in the regulation of the flow of a non-State owned watercourse or for increasing its flow during low-flow periods, all or part of the artificial
A groundwater sheet neighbouring a stream and whose hydraulic properties are closely related to those of the stream. The exploitation of such a sheet leads to a decrease in the low-flow of the river, either because the groundwater sheet provides less water to the stream, or because the river begins to feed the sheet.
Collection of geographical maps. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre), in particular, provides geo-referenced data (e.g. water bodies, measuring stations, river basin areas such as BD Carthage, regulatory zoning, etc) via an online service, known as Atlas, on the Sandre website.